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History of Russia: from ancient times to 1917 , UDC: 94 DOI: 10.25688/20-76-9105.2022.47.3.08


  • Rocky Anthony Carl


The formation of political parties and movements across the spectrum in the Russian Empire was a derivative of the Europeanization of political life in the postreform empire. About 300 parties existed in the former empire between the 1880s and 1920s. However, the history of Russian parties strongly differs from the history of European parties and one can speak with certainty about the special path of the history of Russian political parties. This article examines the elements of difference between Russian and European parties. These elements of difference included: the sequence of organization of parties in Russia and Europe and the relationship of Russian parties to political terrorism as a form of political struggle. All parties, including liberals and conservatives, recognized the usefulness of terrorism for promoting and attaining their political goals. Through a comparative approach to the study of the history of parties in Russia and Europe, we can determine elements of Russian uniqueness. The existence of political parties and movements in Russia was one more example of the strained relationships between the autocracy and society. All parties in varying degrees were in opposition to the existing political-social order. However, paradoxically, many members of political movements across the spectrum shared an unacceptance with the last tsar and many members of the government of the possibility of the Russian Empire going over to a model of European liberal statehood. In the history of European revolutions, this rejection of European norms of statehood and legality was unprecedented and significantly shaped the course of events in the history of the Duma monarchy and the Revolution of 1917–1922.

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Rocky, A. . (2022). POLITICAL PARTIES AND MOVEMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE AND EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES Bulletin of the Moscow City Pedagogical University. Series "Pedagogy and Psychology", 2022, №3 (47), 94. https://doi.org/10.25688/20-76-9105.2022.47.3.08
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